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dc.contributor.authorMarshall, Rachael
dc.contributor.authorHurly, T.Andrew
dc.contributor.authorSturgeon, Jenny
dc.contributor.authorShuker, David Michael
dc.contributor.authorHealy, Susan Denise
dc.identifier.citationMarshall , R , Hurly , T A , Sturgeon , J , Shuker , D M & Healy , S D 2013 , ' What, where and when : deconstructing memory ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , vol. 280 , no. 1772 , 20132194 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 70180083
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: eec2ab7a-7702-4cd2-87bd-ac3a719c14ce
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000330325400014
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84885228081
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8059-4480/work/60631254
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council (DTG studentship to R.E.S.M.)en
dc.description.abstractThe ability of animals to remember the what, where and when of a unique past event is used as an animal equivalent to human episodic memory. We currently view episodic memory as reconstructive, with an event being remembered in the context in which it took place. Importantly, this means that the components of a what, where, when memory task should be dissociable (e. g. what would be remembered to a different degree than when). We tested this hypothesis by training hummingbirds to a memory task, where the location of a reward was specified according to colour (what), location (where), and order and time of day (when). Although hummingbirds remembered these three pieces of information together more often than expected, there was a hierarchy as to how they were remembered. When seemed to be the hardest to remember, while errors relating to what were more easily corrected. Furthermore, when appears to have been encoded as a combination of time of day and sequence information. As hummingbirds solved this task using reconstruction of different memory components (what, where and when), we suggest that similar deconstructive approaches may offer a useful way to compare episodic and episodic-like memories.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciencesen
dc.rights© 2013 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectmemory reconstructionen
dc.subjectepisodic-like memoryen
dc.subjectHummingbirds Selasphorus-Rufusen
dc.subjectEpisodic-Like Memoryen
dc.subjectMental Time-Travelen
dc.subjectRufous Hummingbirdsen
dc.subjectSpatial Memoryen
dc.subjectCognitive Neuroscienceen
dc.subjectConstructive Memoryen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleWhat, where and when : deconstructing memoryen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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