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dc.contributor.authorMichaelson, Valerie
dc.contributor.authorBrooks, Fiona
dc.contributor.authorJirásek, Ivo
dc.contributor.authorInchley, Joanna Catherine
dc.contributor.authorWhitehead, Ross David
dc.contributor.authorKing, Nathan
dc.contributor.authorWalsh, Sophie
dc.contributor.authorDavison, Colleen
dc.contributor.authorMazur, Joanna
dc.contributor.authorPickett, William
dc.contributor.authorHBSC Child Spiritual Health Writing Group
dc.identifier.citationMichaelson , V , Brooks , F , Jirásek , I , Inchley , J C , Whitehead , R D , King , N , Walsh , S , Davison , C , Mazur , J , Pickett , W & HBSC Child Spiritual Health Writing Group 2016 , ' Developmental patterns of adolescent spiritual health in six countries ' , SSM - Population Health , vol. 2 , pp. 292-303 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 241901222
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d57f60e9-10e1-4396-a9f2-e1c449ecc474
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84966706406
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000448676800036
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8322-8817/work/65014238
dc.descriptionFunding for this research came from research grants in the following agencies: (1) the Public Health Agency of Canada; (2) the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Operating grant MOP 341188); (3) the Czech Science Foundation (Reg. no. GA14-02804S); (4) the Department of Health for England; (5) the Israeli Ministry of Health; (6) the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw, Poland; and (7) NHS Health Scotland.en
dc.description.abstractThe spiritual health of adolescents is a topic of emerging contemporary importance. Limited numbers of international studies provide evidence about developmental patterns of this aspect of health during the adolescent years. Using multidimensional indicators of spiritual health that have been adapted for use within younger adolescent populations, we therefore: (1) describe aspects of the perceptions of the importance of spiritual health of adolescents by developmental stage and within genders; (2) conduct similar analyses across measures related to specific domains of adolescent spiritual health; (3) relate perceptions of spiritual health to self-perceived personal health status. Cross-sectional surveys were administered to adolescent populations in school settings during 2013–2014. Participants (n=45,967) included eligible and consenting students aged 11–15 years in sampled schools from six European and North American countries. Our primary measures of spiritual health consisted of eight questions in four domains (perceived importance of connections to: self, others, nature, and the transcendent). Socio-demographic factors included age, gender, and country of origin. Self-perceived personal health status was assessed using a simple composite measure. Self-rated importance of spiritual health, both overall and within most questions and domains, declined as young people aged. This declining pattern persisted for both genders and in all countries, and was most notable for the domains of “connections with nature” and “connections with the transcendent”. Girls consistently rated their perceptions of the importance of spiritual health higher than boys. Spiritual health and its domains related strongly and consistently with self-perceived personal health status. While limited by the 8-item measure of perceived spiritual health employed, study findings confirm developmental theories proposed from qualitative observation, provide foundational evidence for the planning and targeting of interventions centered on adolescent spiritual health practices, and direction for the study of spiritual health in a general population health survey context.
dc.relation.ispartofSSM - Population Healthen
dc.rightsCopyright 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectChild developmenten
dc.subjectSpiritual healthen
dc.subjectRJ101 Child Health. Child health servicesen
dc.titleDevelopmental patterns of adolescent spiritual health in six countriesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Child and Adolescent Health Research Uniten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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