Gene expression changes in diapause or quiescent potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, eggs after hydration or exposure to tomato root diffusate
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Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) need to be adapted to survive in the absence of a suitable host or in hostile environmental conditions. Various forms of developmental arrest including hatching inhibition and dauer stages are used by PPN in order to survive these conditions and spread to other areas. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) (Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis) are frequently in an anhydrobiotic state, with unhatched nematode persisting for extended periods of time inside the cyst in the absence of the host. This paper shows fundamental changes in the response of quiescent and diapaused eggs of G. pallida to hydration and following exposure to tomato root diffusate (RD) using microarray gene expression analysis encompassing a broad set of genes. For the quiescent eggs, 547 genes showed differential expression following hydration vs. hydratation and RD (H-RD) treatment whereas 708 genes showed differential regulation for the diapaused eggs following these treatments. The comparison between hydrated quiescent and diapaused eggs showed marked differences, with 2,380 genes that were differentially regulated compared with 987 genes following H-RD. Hydrated quiescent and diapaused eggs were markedly different indicating differences in adaptation for long-term survival. Transport activity is highly up-regulated following H-RD and few genes were coincident between both kinds of eggs. With the quiescent eggs, the majority of genes were related to ion transport (mainly sodium), while the diapaused eggs showed a major diversity of transporters (amino acid transport, ion transport, acetylcholine or other molecules).
Palomares-Rius , J E , Hedley , P , Cock , P J A , Morris , J A , Jones , J T & Blok , V C 2016 , ' Gene expression changes in diapause or quiescent potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida , eggs after hydration or exposure to tomato root diffusate ' PeerJ , no. 2 , 1654 . DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1654
© 2016 Palomares-Rius et al. This is an open access article distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 licence.
The authors thank the Education Spanish Ministry for the grant provided for the first author under the "Ayudas para la movilidad postdoctoral en centros extranjeros'' scheme. The James Hutton Institute receives funding from the Scottish Government.
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