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dc.contributor.authorLi, Wenchang
dc.contributor.authorWagner, Monica Anne
dc.contributor.authorPorter, Nicola Jean
dc.identifier.citationLi , W , Wagner , M A & Porter , N J 2014 , ' Behavioral observation of xenopus tadpole swimming for neuroscience labs ' , Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education , vol. 12 , no. 2 , pp. A107-A113 .en
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 117053509
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 846beb56-9694-4263-9026-ebacca91953b
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84896349372
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1179-6636/work/64361126
dc.description.abstractNeuroscience labs benefit from reliable, easily - monitored neural responses mediated by well - studied neural pathways . Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been used as a simple vertebrate model preparation in motor control studies. Most of the neuronal pathways underlying different aspects of tadpole swimming behavior have been revealed. These include the skin mechanosensory touch and pineal eye light - sensing pathways whose activation can initiate swimming , and the cement gland pressure - sensing pathway responsible for stopping swimming. A simple transection in the hindbrain can cut off the pineal eye and cement gland pathways from the swimming circuit in the spinal cord, resulting in losses of corresponding functions. Additionally, some pharmacological experiments targeting neurotransmission can be designed to affect swimming and, fluorescence - conjugated α -bungarotoxin can be used to label nicotinic receptors at neuromuscular junctions. These experiments can be readily adapted for undergraduate neuroscience teaching labs. Possible expansions of some experiments for more sophisticated pharmacological or neurophysiological labs are also discussed.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Educationen
dc.rights© 2014 The Authors. This is an Open Access article published in the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education Spring 2014, available online:
dc.subjectNeuromuscular junction behaviouren
dc.subjectQP Physiologyen
dc.titleBehavioral observation of xenopus tadpole swimming for neuroscience labsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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