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dc.contributor.authorCameron, Peter J.
dc.contributor.authorEast, James
dc.contributor.authorFtzGerald, Des
dc.contributor.authorMitchell, James David
dc.contributor.authorPebody, Luke
dc.contributor.authorQuinn-Gregson, Thomas
dc.identifier.citationCameron , P J , East , J , FtzGerald , D , Mitchell , J D , Pebody , L & Quinn-Gregson , T 2023 , ' Minimum degrees of finite rectangular bands, null semigroups, and variants of full transformation semigroups ' , Combinatorial Theory , vol. 3 , no. 3 , 16 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3130-9505/work/149332834
dc.descriptionFunding: ARC Future Fellowship FT190100632; German Science Foundation (DFG, project number 622397); and by the European Research Council (Grant Agreement no. 681988, CSP-Infinity).en
dc.description.abstractFor a positive integer n, the full transformation semigroup Tn consists of all self maps of the set {1,…,n} under composition. Any finite semigroup S embeds in some Tn, and the least such n is called the (minimum transformation) degree of S and denoted μ(S). We find degrees for various classes of finite semigroups, including rectangular bands, rectangular groups and null semigroups. The formulae we give involve natural parameters associated to integer compositions. Our results on rectangular bands answers a question of Easdown from 1992, and our approach utilises some results of independent interest concerning partitions/colourings of hypergraphs. As an application, we prove some results on the degree of a variant Tna. (The variant Sa = (S,*) of a semigroup S with respect to a fixed element a∈S, has underlying set S and operation x*y = xay.) It has been previously shown that n ≤ μ(Tna) ≤ 2n−r if the sandwich element a has rank r, and the upper bound of 2n−r is known to be sharp if r ≥ n−1. Here we show that μ(Tna) = 2n−r for r ≥ n−6. In stark contrast to this, when r = 1, and the above inequality says n ≤ μ(Tna) ≤ 2n−1, we show that μ(Tna)/n → 1 and μ(Tna)−n → ∞ as n → ∞. Among other results, we also classify the 3-nilpotent subsemigroups of Tn, and calculate the maximum size of such a subsemigroup.
dc.relation.ispartofCombinatorial Theoryen
dc.subjectTransformation semigroupen
dc.subjectMinimal degreeen
dc.subjectTransformation representationen
dc.subjectSemigroup varianten
dc.subjectRectangular banden
dc.subjectNilpotent semigroupen
dc.subjectQ Scienceen
dc.titleMinimum degrees of finite rectangular bands, null semigroups, and variants of full transformation semigroupsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Pure Mathematicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Computational Algebraen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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