Graph automatic semigroups
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In this thesis we examine properties and constructions of graph automatic semigroups, a generalisation of both automatic semigroups and finitely generated FA-presentable semigroups. We consider the properties of graph automatic semigroups, showing that they are independent of the choice of generating set, have decidable word problem, and that if we have a graph automatic structure for a semigroup then we can find one with uniqueness. Semigroup constructions and their effect on graph automaticity are considered. We show that finitely generated direct products, free products, finitely generated Rees matrix semigroup constructions, zero unions, and ordinal sums all preserve unary graph automaticity, and examine when the converse also holds. We also demonstrate situations where semidirect products, Bruck-Reilly extensions, and semilattice constructions preserve graph automaticity, and consider the conditions we may impose on such constructions in order to ensure that graph automaticity is preserved. Unary graph automatic semigroups, that is semigroups which have graph automatic structures over a single letter alphabet, are also examined. We consider the form of an automaton recognising multiplication by generators in such a semigroup, and use this to demonstrate various properties of unary graph automatic semigroups. We show that infinite periodic semigroups are not unary graph automatic, and show that we may always find a uniform set of normal forms for a unary graph automatic semigroup. We also determine some necessary conditions for a semigroup to be unary graph automatic, and use this to provide examples of semigroups which are not unary graph automatic. Finally we consider semigroup constructions for unary graph automatic semigroups. We show that the free product of two semigroups is unary graph automatic if and only if both semigroups are trivial; that direct products do not always preserve unary graph automaticity; and that Bruck-Reilly extensions are never unary graph automatic.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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