Lung cancer CT screening : psychological responses in the presence and absence of pulmonary nodules
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Objectives: To determine the psychological response (thoughts, perceptions and affect) to a diagnosis of pulmonary nodules following a novel antibody blood test and computed tomography (CT) scans within a UK population. Materials and methods: This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of a blood test (Early CDT®-Lung test), followed by a chest x-ray and serial CT-scanning of those with a positive blood test for early detection of lung cancer (ECLS Study). Trial participants with a positive Early CDT®-Lung test were invited to participate (n = 338) and those agreeing completed questionnaires assessing psychological outcomes at 1, 3 and 6 months following trial recruitment. Responses of individuals with pulmonary nodules on their first CT scan were compared to those without (classified as normal CT) at 3 and 6 months follow-up using random effects regression models to account for multiple observations per participant, with loge transformation of data where modelling assumptions were not met. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the nodule and normal CT groups in affect, lung cancer worry, health anxiety, illness perceptions, lung cancer risk perception or intrusive thoughts at 3 or 6 months post-recruitment. The nodule group had statistically significantly fewer avoidance symptoms compared to the normal CT group at 3 months (impact of events scale avoidance (IES-A) difference between means -1.99, 95%CI -4.18, 0.21) than at 6 months (IES-A difference between means 0.88, 95%CI -1.32, 3.08; p-value for change over time = 0.003) with similar findings using loge transformed data. Conclusion: A diagnosis of pulmonary nodules following an Early CDT®-Lung test and CT scan did not appear to result in adverse psychological responses compared to those with a normal CT scan.
Clark , M E , Bedford , L E , Young , B , Robertson , J FR , Nair , R D , Vedhara , K , Littleford , R , Sullivan , F M , Mair , F S , Schembri , S , Rauchhaus , P & Kendrick , D 2018 , ' Lung cancer CT screening : psychological responses in the presence and absence of pulmonary nodules ' Lung Cancer , vol. In press . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.08.001
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.08.001
DescriptionThis study was carried out as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) School for Primary Care Research (SPCR) funded academic clinical fellowship. The ECLS study was funded by the Scottish Executive and Oncimmune Ltd. The follow-up data collection was funded by University of Nottingham PhD studentships and by Oncimmune Ltd.
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