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dc.contributor.authorSo, Vivian H. T.
dc.contributor.authorBest, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorCurrie, Dorothy
dc.contributor.authorHaw, Sally
dc.identifier.citationSo , V H T , Best , C , Currie , D & Haw , S 2019 , ' Association between tobacco control policies and current smoking across different occupational groups in the EU between 2009 and 2017 ' , Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , vol. 73 , no. 8 , pp. 759-767 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 259034842
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 59c09b5a-2cd5-4d69-9d3c-556758157ff0
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 31213489
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7321-9394/work/60196053
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85067413619
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000478920900012
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 31213489
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-5839-862X/work/79565109
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: This study investigated the cross-national and longitudinal associations between national tobacco control policies and current smoking in 28 European Union (EU) member states between 2009 and 2017. It also examined the interaction between tobacco control policies and occupational status. METHODS: We used data from four waves of Eurobarometer (2009, 2012, 2014 and 2017). The total sample size was 105 231 individuals aged ≥15 years. Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores (range 0 to 100) for years 2005, 2007, 2012 and 2014 measured the strength of country-level tobacco control policies. Logistic multilevel regression analyses with three levels (the individual, the country-year and the country) were performed with current smoker as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Across the EU, average smoking prevalence fell from 29.4% (95% CI 28.5% to 30.2%) in 2009 to 26.3% (95% CI 25.4% to 27.1%) in 2017. We confirmed that cross-nationally, strong national tobacco control policies are significantly associated with a low probability of smoking. A one-point increase in TCS score was associated with lower odds of smoking (OR=0.990; 95% CI 0.983 to 0.998), but longitudinally (within-country) increases in TCS were not associated with current smoking (OR=0.999; 95% CI 0.994 to 1.005). Compared with those in manual occupations, the cross-national association was stronger in the upper occupational group (conditional OR for the interaction=0.985; 95% CI 0.978 to 0.992) and weaker in the economically inactive group (conditional OR for the interaction=1.009; 95% CI 1.005 to 1.013). CONCLUSION: Differences in tobacco control policies between countries were associated with the probability of smoking but the changes in TCS within countries over time were not. Differences between countries in tobacco control policies were found to be most strongly associated with the likelihood of smoking in the highest occupational groups and were found to have only a weak association with smoking among the economically inactive in this sample.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Epidemiology and Community Healthen
dc.rightsCopyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectPublic healthen
dc.subjectMultilevel modellingen
dc.subjectTobacco controlen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectHealth Policyen
dc.subjectPublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Healthen
dc.subjectHealth(social science)en
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleAssociation between tobacco control policies and current smoking across different occupational groups in the EU between 2009 and 2017en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Child and Adolescent Health Research Uniten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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