Effects of neonicotinoids on bees: an invalid experiment
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We use a recent study on the effects of neonicotinoids on bees as a concrete example to reinforce the advice of OEPP/EPPO (2010) that strong inference is impossible if there is no true replication and that analyses based on pseudoreplication are invalid.
Bailey , R A & Greenwood , J J D 2018 , ' Effects of neonicotinoids on bees: an invalid experiment ' Ecotoxicology , vol. 27 , no. 1 , pp. 1-7 . DOI: 10.1007/s10646-017-1877-1
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