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dc.contributor.authorMcGhee, David J. M.
dc.contributor.authorRoyle, Pamela L.
dc.contributor.authorThompson, Paul A.
dc.contributor.authorWright, David E.
dc.contributor.authorZajicek, John P.
dc.contributor.authorCounsell, Carl E.
dc.identifier.citationMcGhee , D J M , Royle , P L , Thompson , P A , Wright , D E , Zajicek , J P & Counsell , C E 2013 , ' A systematic review of biomarkers for disease progression in Parkinson's disease ' , BMC Neurology , vol. 13 , 35 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 242656229
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 8f93746a-d24b-4875-9be5-61b99a3bd972
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 23587062
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84877070118
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3481-825X/work/64034651
dc.descriptionThis article presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Programme Grants for Applied Research Programme (Grant Reference Number RP-PG-0707-10124).en
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Using surrogate biomarkers for disease progression as endpoints in neuroprotective clinical trials may help differentiate symptomatic effects of potential neuroprotective agents from true disease-modifying effects. A systematic review was undertaken to determine what biomarkers for disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) exist. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE (1950-2010) were searched using five search strategies. Abstracts were assessed to identify papers meriting review in full. Studies of participants with idiopathic PD diagnosed by formal criteria or clearly described clinical means were included. We made no restriction on age, disease duration, drug treatment, or study design. We included studies which attempted to draw associations between any tests used to investigate disease progression and any clinical measures of disease progression. The electronic search was validated by hand-searching the two journals from which most included articles came. RESULTS: 183 studies were included: 163 (89%) cross-sectional, 20 (11%) longitudinal. The electronic search strategy had a sensitivity of 71.4% (95% CI 51.1-86.0) and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI 96.5-97.7). In longitudinal studies median follow-up was 2.0 years (IQR 1.1-3.5). Included studies were generally poor quality--cross-sectional with small numbers of participants, applying excessive inclusion/exclusion criteria, with flawed methodologies and simplistic statistical analyses. CONCLUSION: We found insufficient evidence to recommend the use of any biomarker for disease progression in PD clinical trials, which may simply reflect the poor quality of research in this area. We therefore present a provisional 'roadmap' for conducting future disease progression biomarker studies, and recommend new quality criteria by which future studies may be judged.
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Neurologyen
dc.rights© 2013 McGhee et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectDisease Progressionen
dc.subjectParkinson Diseaseen
dc.subjectClinical trialsen
dc.subjectNeuroprotective agentsen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titleA systematic review of biomarkers for disease progression in Parkinson's diseaseen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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