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dc.contributor.authorHarwell, Jonathon Robert
dc.contributor.authorBaikie, T. K.
dc.contributor.authorBaikie, I. D.
dc.contributor.authorPayne, Julia Louise
dc.contributor.authorNi, Chengsheng
dc.contributor.authorIrvine, John Thomas Sirr
dc.contributor.authorTurnbull, Graham A.
dc.contributor.authorSamuel, Ifor David William
dc.identifier.citationHarwell , J R , Baikie , T K , Baikie , I D , Payne , J L , Ni , C , Irvine , J T S , Turnbull , G A & Samuel , I D W 2016 , ' Probing the energy levels of perovskite solar cells via Kelvin probe and UV ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy ' Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , vol. 18 , no. 29 , pp. 19738-19745 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 244137719
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: e63bd6f8-bb38-466a-9662-ac5cfbd46ae0
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000380343100026
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000380343100026
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84979263682
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2132-7091/work/31037443
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant codes EP/M506631/1, EP/ K015540/01, EP/K022237/1 and EP/M025330/1). IDWS and JTSI acknowledge Royal Society Wolfson research merit awards.en
dc.description.abstractThe field of organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells has been rapidly growing since their discovery in 2009. State of the art devices are now achieving efficiencies comparable to much older technologies like silicon, while utilising simple manufacturing processes and starting materials. A key parameter to consider when optimising solar cell devices or when designing new materials is the position and effects of the energy levels in the materials. We present here a comprehensive study of the energy levels present in a common structure of perovskite solar cell using an advanced macroscopic Kelvin probe and UV air photoemission setup. By constructing a detailed map of the energy levels in the system we are able to predict the importance of each layer to the open circuit voltage of the solar cell, which we then back up through measurements of the surface photovoltage of the cell under white illumination. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of air photoemission and Kelvin probe contact potential difference measurements as a method of identifying the factors contributing to the open circuit voltage in a solar cell, as well as being an excellent way of probing the physics of new materials.
dc.relation.ispartofPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physicsen
dc.rightsCopyright 2016 the Authors. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence (
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.titleProbing the energy levels of perovskite solar cells via Kelvin probe and UV ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Chemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.EaSTCHEMen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Condensed Matter Physicsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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