Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy
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The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B.xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B.xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B.xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy.
Espada , M , Silva , A C , Eves van den Akker , S , Cock , P J A , Mota , M & Jones , J T 2016 , ' Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy ' Molecular Plant Pathology , vol 17 , no. 2 , pp. 286-295 . DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12280
Molecular Plant Pathology
© 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12280
This work was supported by the REPHRAME project (KBBE.2010.1.4-09). ME is funded by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, IP) under a PhD grant (SFRH/BD/84541/2012). ME and MM are also funded by FEDER Funds through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors—COMPETE and National Funds through FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology under the Strategic Projects PEst-C/AGR/UI0115/2011 and PEst-OE/AGR/UI0115/2014. AS was funded by an ERASMUS MUNDUS Category B scholarship awarded through project 2008–2102 (EUMAINE). The James Hutton Institute receives funding from the Scottish Government Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services division (RESAS).
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