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dc.contributor.authorAndreev, Yuri Georgievich
dc.contributor.authorBruce, Peter
dc.identifier.citationAndreev , Y G & Bruce , P 2016 , ' Size and shape of graphene layers in commercial carbon blacks established by Debye refinement ' , Journal of Applied Crystallography , vol. 49 , no. 1 , pp. 24-30 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 230708641
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 8cc7bc38-2037-43c4-ad9f-c005da9cd0ec
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84957095824
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000369389300003
dc.descriptionPGB acknowledges financial support of EPSRC, including the SUPERGEN project.en
dc.description.abstractThe size and the shape of graphene layers in commercial conductive carbon blacks, Super P® and Super S®, have been determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Using a refinement procedure based on the fundamental diffraction equation of Debye, it is shown that the ordered regions within the layers of both materials are of elliptical shape, curved in a cylindrical fashion along the longer axis of the ellipse. The regions are greater in Super P®, ellipse axes: 5.4 and 2.2 nm, than in Super S®, 4.6 and 2.1 nm, and less curved, curvature radii: 12.7 and 11.7 nm respectively. There is no crystallographic registry between layers that are equidistantly stacked into concentric groups of 6 or 7, on average.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Applied Crystallographyen
dc.rightsCopyright 2016 International Union of Crystallography. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectPowder diffractionen
dc.subjectDebye equationen
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.titleSize and shape of graphene layers in commercial carbon blacks established by Debye refinementen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Chemistryen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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