Size and shape of graphene layers in commercial carbon blacks established by Debye refinement
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The size and the shape of graphene layers in commercial conductive carbon blacks, Super P® and Super S®, have been determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Using a refinement procedure based on the fundamental diffraction equation of Debye, it is shown that the ordered regions within the layers of both materials are of elliptical shape, curved in a cylindrical fashion along the longer axis of the ellipse. The regions are greater in Super P®, ellipse axes: 5.4 and 2.2 nm, than in Super S®, 4.6 and 2.1 nm, and less curved, curvature radii: 12.7 and 11.7 nm respectively. There is no crystallographic registry between layers that are equidistantly stacked into concentric groups of 6 or 7, on average.
Andreev , Y G & Bruce , P 2016 , ' Size and shape of graphene layers in commercial carbon blacks established by Debye refinement ' Journal of Applied Crystallography , vol 49 , no. 1 , pp. 24-30 . DOI: 10.1107/S1600576715021378
Journal of Applied Crystallography
Copyright 2016 International Union of Crystallography. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600576715021378
PGB acknowledges financial support of EPSRC, including the SUPERGEN project.