Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs
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We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuumradiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. We propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts typical Class II T Tauri star continuum and line observations. We systematically study the impact ofeach model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dustsettling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuumvisibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63μm, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties (large grains) often needed to fit the SED, have important consequences for disk chemistry and heating/cooling balance, leading to stronger emission lines in general. Strong dust settling and missing disk flaring have similar effects oncontinuum observations, but opposite effects on far-IR gas emissionlines. PAH molecules can shield the gas from stellar UV radiation because of their strong absorption and negligible scattering opacities.The observable millimetre-slope of the SED can become significantly more gentle in the case of cold disk midplanes, which we find regularly in our T Tauri models. We propose to use line observations of robustchemical tracers of the gas, such as O, CO, and H2, as additional constraints to determine some key properties of the disks, such as diskshape and mass, opacities, and the dust/gas ratio, by simultaneously fitting continuum and line observations.
Woitke , P , Min , M , Pinte , C , Thi , W -F , Kamp , I , Rab , C , Anthonioz , F , Antonellini , S , Baldovin-Saavedra , C , Carmona , A , Dominik , C , Dionatos , O , Greaves , J S , Güdel , M , Ilee , J D , Liebhart , A , Ménard , F , Rigon , L , Waters , L B F M , Aresu , G , Meijerink , R & Spaans , M 2016 , ' Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs ' Astronomy & Astrophysics , vol 586 , pp. A103 . DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526538
Astronomy & Astrophysics
© ESO, 2016. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526538