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dc.contributor.authorKosmeier, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorZolotovskaya, Svetlana
dc.contributor.authorDe Luca, Anna Chiara
dc.contributor.authorRiches, Andrew C
dc.contributor.authorHerrington, C Simon
dc.contributor.authorDholakia, Kishan
dc.contributor.authorMazilu, Michael
dc.identifier.citationKosmeier , S , Zolotovskaya , S , De Luca , A C , Riches , A C , Herrington , C S , Dholakia , K & Mazilu , M 2014 , ' Nonredundant Raman imaging using optical eigenmodes ' , Optica , vol. 1 , no. 4 , pp. 257-263 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 163898288
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5cfaa00b-e019-455d-8695-c43174f1d966
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:9B688D4056BA182C4D51797260823475
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84935507354
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000354863900010
dc.descriptionWe thank funding from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council namely grant EP/J01771X/1 and EU FP7 grant FAMOS.en
dc.description.abstractVarious forms of imaging schemes have emerged over the last decade that are based on correlating variations in incident illuminating light fields to the outputs of single “bucket” detectors. However, to date, the role of the orthogonality of the illumination fields has largely been overlooked, and, furthermore, the field has not progressed beyond bright field imaging. By exploiting the concept of orthogonal illuminating fields, we demonstrate the application of optical eigenmodes (OEis) to wide-field, scan-free spontaneous Raman imaging, which is notoriously slow in wide-field mode. The OEi approach enables a form of indirect imaging that exploits both phase and amplitude in image reconstruction. The use of orthogonality enables us to nonredundantly illuminate the sample and, in particular, use a subset of illuminating modes to obtain the majority of information from the sample, thus minimizing any photobleaching or damage of the sample. The crucial incorporation of phase, in addition to amplitude, in the imaging process significantly reduces background noise and results in an improved signal-to-noise ratio for the image while reducing the number of illuminations. As an example we can reconstruct images of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy sample with approximately an order of magnitude fewer acquisitions. This generic approach may readily be applied to other imaging modalities such as fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear vibrational microscopy.
dc.rights© 2014 Optical Society of America. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited.en
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleNonredundant Raman imaging using optical eigenmodesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Commissionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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