The goal trumps the means : highlighting goals is more beneficial than highlighting means in means-end training
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Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants’ means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more valuable for learning to perform a well-organized means-end action. Infants were given the opportunity to both practice cloth-pulling and view modeling of the action performed by an adult throughout the session. Infants saw either the same toy or the same cloth in successive trials, so that the goal or means were highlighted prior to modeling of the action. All infants improved throughout the session regardless of which aspect of the event was highlighted. Beyond this general improvement, repetition of goals supported more rapid learning and more sustained learning than did repetition of means. These findings provide novel evidence that, at the origins of means-end action production, emphasizing the goal that structures an action facilitates the learning of new means-end actions.
Gerson , S & Woodward , A 2013 , ' The goal trumps the means : highlighting goals is more beneficial than highlighting means in means-end training ' , Infancy , vol. 18 , no. 2 , pp. 289-302 . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2012.00112.x
Copyright © International Society on Infant Studies (ISIS). This is the accepted version of the following article: Gerson, S. A. and Woodward, A. L. (2013), The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting Means in Means-End Training. Infancy, 18: 289–302, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2012.00112.x/abstract
DescriptionThis work was partially supported by a grant to the second author from NICHD (HD35707).
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