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dc.contributor.authorAstrom, J. A.
dc.contributor.authorRiikila, T. I.
dc.contributor.authorTallinen, T.
dc.contributor.authorZwinger, T.
dc.contributor.authorBenn, D.
dc.contributor.authorMoore, J. C.
dc.contributor.authorTimonen, J.
dc.identifier.citationAstrom , J A , Riikila , T I , Tallinen , T , Zwinger , T , Benn , D , Moore , J C & Timonen , J 2013 , ' A particle based simulation model for glacier dynamics ' , The Cryosphere , vol. 7 , no. 5 , pp. 1591-1602 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 134161012
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d0338593-52f1-4b85-8eee-1a797fe83e34
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000328544800020
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84885443048
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3604-0886/work/64697357
dc.descriptionThis publication is contribution number 22 of the Nordic Centre of Excellence SVALI, “Stability and Variations of Arctic Land Ice”, funded by the Nordic Top-level Research Initiative (TRI). The work has been supported by the SVALI project through the University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, and through the University Centre in Svalbard. Funding was also provided by the Conoco-Phillips and Lunding High North Research Program (CRIOS: Calving Rates and Impact on Society).en
dc.description.abstractA particle-based computer simulation model was developed for investigating the dynamics of glaciers. In the model, large ice bodies are made of discrete elastic particles which are bound together by massless elastic beams. These beams can break, which induces brittle behaviour. At loads below fracture, beams may also break and reform with small probabilities to incorporate slowly deforming viscous behaviour in the model. This model has the advantage that it can simulate important physical processes such as ice calving and fracturing in a more realistic way than traditional continuum models. For benchmarking purposes the deformation of an ice block on a slip-free surface was compared to that of a similar block simulated with a Finite Element full-Stokes continuum model. Two simulations were performed: (1) calving of an ice block partially supported in water, similar to a grounded marine glacier terminus, and (2) fracturing of an ice block on an inclined plane of varying basal friction, which could represent transition to fast flow or surging. Despite several approximations, including restriction to two-dimensions and simplified water-ice interaction, the model was able to reproduce the size distributions of the debris observed in calving, which may be approximated by universal scaling laws. On a moderate slope, a large ice block was stable and quiescent as long as there was enough of friction against the substrate. For a critical length of frictional contact, global sliding began, and the model block disintegrated in a manner suggestive of a surging glacier. In this case the fragment size distribution produced was typical of a grinding process.
dc.relation.ispartofThe Cryosphereen
dc.rights© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (
dc.subjectDiscrete element modelen
dc.subjectSize distributionsen
dc.subjectTidewater glaciersen
dc.subjectCalving glaciersen
dc.subjectBasal conditionsen
dc.subjectBergy bitsen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleA particle based simulation model for glacier dynamicsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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