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dc.contributor.authorCrockford, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorWittig, Roman M.
dc.contributor.authorMundry, Roger
dc.contributor.authorZuberbuehler, Klaus
dc.identifier.citationCrockford , C , Wittig , R M , Mundry , R & Zuberbuehler , K 2012 , ' Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger ' , Current Biology , vol. 22 , no. 2 , pp. 142-146 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 16869182
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 2e9aa875-3c6e-4975-a483-9d632af2197f
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000299655800023
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84856165328
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8378-088X/work/64360749
dc.description.abstractThe ability to recognize other individuals' mental states their knowledge and beliefs, for example is a fundamental part of human cognition and may be unique to our species. Tests of a "theory of mind" in animals have yielded conflicting results [1-3]. Some nonhuman primates can read others' intentions and know what others see, but they may not understand that, in others, perception can lead to knowledge [1-3]. Using an alarm-call-based field experiment, we show that chimpanzees were more likely to alarm call in response to a snake in the presence of unaware group members than in the presence of aware group members, suggesting that they recognize knowledge and ignorance in others. We monitored the behavior of 33 individuals to a model viper placed on their projected travel path. Alarm calls were significantly more common if the caller was with group members who had either not seen the snake or had not been present when alarm calls were emitted. Other factors, such as own arousal, perceived risk, or risk to receivers, did not significantly explain the likelihood of calling, although they did affect the call rates. Our results suggest that chimpanzees monitor the information available to other chimpanzees and control vocal production to selectively inform them.
dc.relation.ispartofCurrent Biologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Archive article published under an Elsevier user license, which means it may be used for non-commercial purposes. For full terms of the license see
dc.subjectALARM CALLSen
dc.subjectFEMALE BABOONSen
dc.titleWild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of dangeren
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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