Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). I. Program overview and highlights
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Planets form and obtain their compositions in dust- and gas-rich disks around young stars, and the outcome of this process is intimately linked to the disk chemical properties. The distributions of molecules across disks regulate the elemental compositions of planets, including C/N/O/S ratios and metallicity (O/H and C/H), as well as access to water and prebiotically relevant organics. Emission from molecules also encodes information on disk ionization levels, temperature structures, kinematics, and gas surface densities, which are all key ingredients of disk evolution and planet formation models. The Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) ALMA Large Program was designed to expand our understanding of the chemistry of planet formation by exploring disk chemical structures down to 10 au scales. The MAPS program focuses on five disks-around IM Lup, GM Aur, AS 209, HD 163296, and MWC 480-in which dust substructures are detected and planet formation appears to be ongoing. We observed these disks in four spectral setups, which together cover ~50 lines from over 20 different species. This paper introduces the Astrophysical Journal Supplement's MAPS Special Issue by presenting an overview of the program motivation, disk sample, observational details, and calibration strategy. We also highlight key results, including discoveries of links between dust, gas, and chemical substructures, large reservoirs of nitriles and other organics in the inner disk regions, and elevated C/O ratios across most disks. We discuss how this collection of results is reshaping our view of the chemistry of planet formation.
Öberg , K I , Guzmán , V V , Walsh , C , Aikawa , Y , Bergin , E A , Law , C J , Loomis , R A , Alarcón , F , Andrews , S M , Bae , J , Bergner , J B , Boehler , Y , Booth , A S , Bosman , A D , Calahan , J K , Cataldi , G , Cleeves , L I , Czekala , I , Furuya , K , Huang , J , Ilee , J D , Kurtovic , N T , Le Gal , R , Liu , Y , Long , F , Ménard , F , Nomura , H , Pérez , L M , Qi , C , Schwarz , K R , Sierra , A , Teague , R , Tsukagoshi , T , Yamato , Y , van't Hoff , M L R , Waggoner , A R , Wilner , D J & Zhang , K 2021 , ' Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). I. Program overview and highlights ' , Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series , vol. 257 , no. 1 , 1 . https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/ac1432
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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DescriptionFunding: I.C. was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51405.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. C.W. acknowledges financial support from the University of Leeds, Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom (STFC), and UKRI (grant Nos. ST/R000549/1, ST/T000287/1, MR/T040726/1).
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