Functionally diverse front-end desaturases are widespread in the phylum Annelida
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Aquatic single-cell organisms have long been believed to be unique primary producers of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA). Multiple invertebrates including annelids have been discovered to possess methyl-end desaturases enabling key steps in the de novo synthesis of ω3 LC-PUFA, and thus potentially contributing to their production in the ocean. Along methyl-end desaturases, the repertoire and function of further LC-PUFA biosynthesising enzymes is largely missing in Annelida. In this study we examined the front-end desaturase gene repertoire across the phylum Annelida, from Polychaeta and Clitellata, major classes of annelids comprising most annelid diversity. We further characterised the functions of the encoded enzymes in selected representative species by using a heterologous expression system based in yeast, demonstrating that functions of Annelida front-end desaturases have highly diversified during their expansion in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We concluded that annelids possess at least two front-end desaturases with Δ5 and Δ6Δ8 desaturase regioselectivities, enabling all the desaturation reactions required to convert the C18 precursors into the physiologically relevant LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids, but not docosahexaenoic acid. Such a gene complement is conserved across the different taxonomic groups within Annelida.
Ramos-Llorens , M , Hontoria , F , Navarro , J , Ferrier , D E K & Monroig , O 2023 , ' Functionally diverse front-end desaturases are widespread in the phylum Annelida ' , Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids , vol. 1868 , no. 10 , 159377 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2023.159377
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/).
DescriptionFunding: This study was funded through the project IMPROMEGA Agencia Española de Investigación, Spain, grant no. RTI2018-095119-B-100, MCIN/AEI/ FEDER/UE / MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033/ and FEDER "A way to make Europe". Additionally, this study forms part of the ThinkInAzul programme and was supported by MCIN with funding from European Union NextGenerationEU (PRTR-C17.I1) and by Generalitat Valenciana (THINKINAZUL/2021/26).
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