A dissipative reaction network drives transient solid-liquid and liquid-liquid phase cycling of nanoparticles
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Transient states maintained by energy dissipation are an essential feature of dynamic systems where structures and functions are regulated by fluxes of energy and matter through chemical reaction networks. Perfected in biology, chemically fueled dissipative networks incorporating nanoscale components allow the unique properties of nanomaterials to be bestowed with spatiotemporal adaptability and chemical responsiveness. We report the transient dispersion of gold nanoparticles in water, powered by dissipation of a chemical fuel. A dispersed state that is generated under nonequilibrium conditions permits fully reversible solid–liquid or liquid–liquid phase transfer. The molecular basis of the out-of-equilibrium process is reversible covalent modification of nanoparticle-bound ligands by a simple inorganic activator. Activator consumption by a coupled dissipative reaction network leads to autonomous cycling between phases. The out-of-equilibrium lifetime is tunable by adjusting pH, and reversible phase cycling is reproducible over several cycles.
Roy , S , Gravener , L , Philp , D & Kay , E R 2023 , ' A dissipative reaction network drives transient solid-liquid and liquid-liquid phase cycling of nanoparticles ' , Angewandte Chemie International Edition , vol. 62 , no. 22 , e202217613 . https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202217613
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DescriptionFunding: Financial support for this work was provided by the University of St Andrews and EaStCHEM, and the Leverhulme Trust [Grant RPG-2019-155].
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