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dc.contributor.authorPestana, Carlos J
dc.contributor.authorHui, Jianing
dc.contributor.authorCamacho-Muñoz, Dolores
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Christine
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Peter K J
dc.contributor.authorIrvine, John T S
dc.contributor.authorLawton, Linda A
dc.identifier.citationPestana , C J , Hui , J , Camacho-Muñoz , D , Edwards , C , Robertson , P K J , Irvine , J T S & Lawton , L A 2023 , ' Solar-driven semi-conductor photocatalytic water treatment (TiO 2 , g-C 3 N 4 , and TiO 2 +g-C 3 N 4 ) of cyanotoxins : proof-of-concept study with microcystin-LR ' , Chemosphere , vol. 310 , 136828 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 281992280
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ab62f424-8f7f-476b-97f1-a48e23e92f93
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 688706
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 36241123
dc.identifier.otherpii: S0045-6535(22)03321-5
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85139864651
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8394-3359/work/122215789
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000874749400004
dc.descriptionFunding: We acknowledge the funding provided by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK (Global Challenge Research Fund: EP/P029280/1) towards carrying out this research. We also thank the support on electron microscopes from EPSRC Capital for Great Technologies (Grant EP/LP017008/1 and EP/R02375/1).en
dc.description.abstractCyanobacteria and their toxins are a threat to drinking water safety as increasingly cyanobacterial blooms (mass occurrences) occur in lakes and reservoirs all over the world. Photocatalytic removal of cyanotoxins by solar light active catalysts is a promising way to purify water at relatively low cost compared to modifying existing infrastructure. We have established a facile and low-cost method to obtain TiO2 and g-C3N4 coated floating photocatalysts using recycled glass beads. g-C3N4 coated and TiO2+g-C3N4 co-coated beads were able to completely remove microcystin-LR in artificial fresh water under both natural and simulated solar light irradiation without agitation in less than 2 h. TiO2 coated beads achieved complete removal within 8 h of irradiation. TiO2+g-C3N4 beads were more effective than g-C3N4 beads as demonstrated by the increase reaction rate with reaction constants, 0.0485 min−1 compared to 0.0264 min−1 respectively, with TiO2 alone found to be considerably slower 0.0072 min−1. g-C3N4 based photocatalysts showed a similar degradation pathway to TiO2 based photocatalysts by attacking the C6–C7 double bond on the Adda side chain.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.subjectWater treatmenten
dc.subjectVisible light photocatalysisen
dc.subjectGraphitic-carbon nitrideen
dc.subjectTitanium dioxideen
dc.subjectIn-reservoir treatmenten
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.titleSolar-driven semi-conductor photocatalytic water treatment (TiO2, g-C3N4, and TiO2+g-C3N4) of cyanotoxins : proof-of-concept study with microcystin-LRen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Chemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Energy Ethicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Designer Quantum Materialsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. EaSTCHEMen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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