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dc.contributor.authorMalinka, Chloe E
dc.contributor.authorTønnesen, Pernille
dc.contributor.authorDunn, Charlotte A
dc.contributor.authorClaridge, Diane E
dc.contributor.authorGridley, Tess
dc.contributor.authorElwen, Simon H
dc.contributor.authorTeglberg Madsen, Peter
dc.identifier.citationMalinka , C E , Tønnesen , P , Dunn , C A , Claridge , D E , Gridley , T , Elwen , S H & Teglberg Madsen , P 2021 , ' Echolocation click parameters and biosonar behaviour of the dwarf sperm whale ( Kogia sima ) ' , Journal of Experimental Biology , vol. 224 , no. 6 , jeb240689 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 274691053
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 638f32b0-7260-4fe3-89dc-9cb4680c6ef6
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 33771935
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4274-7239/work/95772489
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85103608262
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000636462900018
dc.descriptionPhD and fieldwork funding were provided by the Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (27125 to P.T.M.), the Oticon Fonden (18-0340 to C.E.M.) the Dansk Akustisk Selskab (to C.E.M.), the South Africa National Research Foundation (research career advancement fellowship to S.E.) and the Claude Leon Foundation (postdoctoral fellowship to T.G.).en
dc.description.abstractDwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) are small toothed whales that produce narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Such NBHF clicks, subject to high levels of acoustic absorption, are usually produced by small, shallow-diving odontocetes, such as porpoises, in keeping with their short-range echolocation and fast click rates. Here, we sought to address the problem of how the little-studied and deep-diving Kogia can hunt with NBHF clicks in the deep sea. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that Kogia produce NBHF clicks with longer inter-click intervals (ICIs), higher directionality and higher source levels (SLs) compared with other NBHF species. We did this by deploying an autonomous deep-water vertical hydrophone array in the Bahamas, where no other NBHF species are present, and by taking opportunistic recordings of a close-range Kogia sima in a South African harbour. Parameters from on-axis clicks (n=46) in the deep revealed very narrow-band clicks (root mean squared bandwidth, BWRMS, of 3±1 kHz), with SLs of up to 197 dB re. 1 µPa peak-to-peak (μPapp) at 1 m, and a half-power beamwidth of 8.8 deg. Their ICIs (mode of 245 ms) were much longer than those of porpoises (<100 ms), suggesting an inspection range that is longer than detection ranges of single prey, perhaps to facilitate auditory streaming of a complex echo scene. On-axis clicks in the shallow harbour (n=870) had ICIs and SLs in keeping with source parameters of other NBHF cetaceans. Thus, in the deep, dwarf sperm whales use a directional, but short-range echolocation system with moderate SLs, suggesting a reliable mesopelagic prey habitat.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Experimental Biologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The author(s). Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.subjectBeam patternen
dc.subjectHydrophone arrayen
dc.subjectNarrow-band high-frequencyen
dc.subjectPassive acoustic monitoringen
dc.subjectSource parametersen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.titleEcholocation click parameters and biosonar behaviour of the dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima)en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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