Development of a coupled simulation toolkit for computational radiation biology based on Geant4 and CompuCell3D
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Understanding and designing clinical radiation therapy is one of the most important areas of state-of-the-art oncological treatment regimens. Decades of research have gone into developing sophisticated treatment devices and optimization protocols for schedules and dosages. In this paper, we presented a comprehensive computational platform that facilitates building of the sophisticated multi-cell-based model of how radiation affects the biology of living tissue. We designed and implemented a coupled simulation method, including a radiation transport model, and a cell biology model, to simulate the tumor response after irradiation. The radiation transport simulation was implemented through Geant4 which is an open-source Monte Carlo simulation platform that provides many flexibilities for users, as well as low energy DNA damage simulation physics, Geant4-DNA. The cell biology simulation was implemented using CompuCell3D (CC3D) which is a cell biology simulation platform. In order to couple Geant4 solver with CC3D, we developed a "bridging" module, RADCELL, that extracts tumor cellular geometry of the CC3D simulation (including specification of the individual cells) and ported it to the Geant4 for radiation transport simulation. The cell dose and cell DNA damage distribution in multicellular system were obtained using Geant4. The tumor response was simulated using cell-based tissue models based on CC3D, and the cell dose and cell DNA damage information were fed back through RADCELL to CC3D for updating the cell properties. By merging two powerful and widely used modeling platforms, CC3D and Geant4, we delivered a novel tool that can give us the ability to simulate the dynamics of biological tissue in the presence of ionizing radiation, which provides a framework for quantifying the biological consequences of radiation therapy. In this introductory methods paper, we described our modeling platform in detail and showed how it can be applied to study the application of radiotherapy to a vascularized tumor.
Liu , R , Higley , K , Swat , M , Chaplain , M A J , Powathil , G & Glazier , J 2021 , ' Development of a coupled simulation toolkit for computational radiation biology based on Geant4 and CompuCell3D ' , Physics in Medicine and Biology , vol. 66 , no. 4 , 045026 . https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abd4f9
Physics in Medicine and Biology
Copyright © 2021 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abd4f9.
DescriptionRL acknowledges support from Consortium for Risk Evaluation and Stakeholder Participation (http://cresp.org). JAG acknowledges support from National Science Foundation grant NSF 1720625 and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences grants U01 GM111243 and R01 GM076692, JAG and MS acknowledge support from National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences grant R01 GM122424.
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