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dc.contributor.authorBates, C. Richard
dc.contributor.authorBates, Martin R.
dc.contributor.authorCrawford, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorSanmark, Alexandra
dc.contributor.authorWhittaker, John
dc.identifier.citationBates , C R , Bates , M R , Crawford , B , Sanmark , A & Whittaker , J 2020 , ' The Norse waterways of West Mainland Orkney, Scotland ' , Journal of Wetland Archaeology , vol. Latest Articles .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 269247609
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6a4da937-7e14-43e9-922c-3d948dc1bbc8
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9147-7151/work/78528475
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85088974399
dc.descriptionThis study was funded by BA/Leverhulme Small Research Grants 2017-18 Round.en
dc.description.abstractNorse place-names for farms, individual landscape features and general landscape areas are ubiquitous throughout the Orkney Islands. These have an origin during the mediaeval period AD790–1350 when Orkney was ruled by Scandinavian earls. The oldest referenced maps for the parish of Harray (West Mainland, Orkney) suggests that in the past significant waterways crossed wetlands extending between the Loch of Harray and Houseby in an area associated with the earldom power base at Birsay. Subsequent drainage projects, changes in climate and sea level have since resulted in the loss of the waterways. An investigation of the wetlands using geophysical and geological analysis provided a reconstruction of the palaeo-environments. Comparison with place-names of significance allowed interpretation of possible routeways along navigable waters by shallow-draught Viking-Age vessels. The results allow for re-drawing the map of Norse Orkney and postulation of produce transfer corridors from estates in the south to the power centre at Birsay.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Wetland Archaeologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectCC Archaeologyen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.titleThe Norse waterways of West Mainland Orkney, Scotlanden
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Coastal Resources Management Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Ancient Environmental Studiesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Institute of Medieval Studiesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Historyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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