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dc.contributor.authorJones, Nick A.R.
dc.contributor.authorKlump, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorAbaurrea, Teresa
dc.contributor.authorHarrower, Sophie
dc.contributor.authorMarr, Clare
dc.contributor.authorScott, Louise
dc.contributor.authorRendell, Luke
dc.contributor.authorWebster, Mike
dc.identifier.citationJones , N A R , Klump , B , Abaurrea , T , Harrower , S , Marr , C , Scott , L , Rendell , L & Webster , M 2021 , ' Short range hunters : exploring the function and constraints of water shooting in dwarf gouramis ' , Journal of Experimental Biology , vol. 224 , no. 24 , 243477 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 276860467
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 816d7bb8-9e29-4fbb-b730-a00c6f9b7cda
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1121-9142/work/105318183
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9597-6871/work/105318324
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-6031-7507/work/105318567
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85122375365
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000738259300011
dc.description.abstractBallistic predation is a rare foraging adaptation: in fishes, most attention has focused on a single genus, the archerfish, known to manipulate water to shoot down prey above the water surface. However, several gourami species also exhibit apparently similar ‘shooting’ behaviour, spitting water up to 5 cm above the surface. In a series of experiments, we explored the shooting behaviour and aspects of its significance as a foraging ability in the dwarf gourami (Trichogaster lalius). We investigated sex differences in shooting abilities to determine whether gourami shooting is related to the sex-specific bubble nest manufacture where males mix air and water at the surface to form bubbles. We found that, actually, both sexes were equally able to shoot and could learn to shoot a novel target. In a second experiment, we presented untrained gouramis with opportunities to shoot at live prey and found they successfully shot down both fruit flies and crickets. Finally, we explored the effect of target height on shooting performance to establish potential constraints of shooting as a foraging ability. The frequency of attempted shots and success of hitting targets decreased with height, whereas latency to shoot increased. We also observed that repeatable individual differences account for variation in these measures of shooting performance. Together, our results provide evidence that gourami shooting has a foraging function analogous to that of archerfish. Gourami shooting may serve as an example of convergent evolution and provide opportunities for comparative studies into the, as yet unexplored, ecology and evolution of shooting in fishes.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Experimental Biologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd . This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.en
dc.subjectBallistic predationen
dc.subjectTrichogaster laliusen
dc.subjectForaging adaptationen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleShort range hunters : exploring the function and constraints of water shooting in dwarf gouramisen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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