Globetrotting strangles : the unbridled national and international transmission of Streptococcus equi between horses
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The equine disease strangles, which is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck, is one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses around the world. The causal agent, subspecies , establishes a persistent infection in approximately 10 % of animals that recover from the acute disease. Such 'carrier' animals appear healthy and are rarely identified during routine veterinary examinations pre-purchase or transit, but can transmit to naïve animals initiating new episodes of disease. Here, we report the analysis and visualization of phylogenomic and epidemiological data for 670 isolates of recovered from 19 different countries using a new core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) web bioresource. Genetic relationships among all 670 S. isolates were determined at high resolution, revealing national and international transmission events that drive this endemic disease in horse populations throughout the world. Our data argue for the recognition of the international importance of strangles by the Office International des Épizooties to highlight the health, welfare and economic cost of this disease. The Pathogenwatch cgMLST web bioresource described herein is available for tailored genomic analysis of populations of and its close relative subspecies that are recovered from horses and other animals, including humans, throughout the world. This article contains data hosted by Microreact.
Mitchell , C , Steward , K F , Charbonneau , A R L , Walsh , S , Wilson , H , Timoney , J F , Wernery , U , Joseph , M , Craig , D , van Maanen , K , Hoogkamer-van Gennep , A , Leon , A , Witkowski , L , Rzewuska , M , Stefańska , I , Żychska , M , van Loon , G , Cursons , R , Patty , O , Acke , E , Gilkerson , J R , El-Hage , C , Allen , J , Bannai , H , Kinoshita , Y , Niwa , H , Becú , T , Pringle , J , Guss , B , Böse , R , Abbott , Y , Katz , L , Leggett , B , Buckley , T C , Blum , S E , Cruz López , F , Fernández Ros , A , Marotti Campi , M C , Preziuso , S , Robinson , C , Newton , J R , Schofield , E , Brooke , B , Boursnell , M , de Brauwere , N , Kirton , R , Barton , C K , Abudahab , K , Taylor , B , Yeats , C A , Goater , R , Aanensen , D M , Harris , S R , Parkhill , J , Holden , M T G & Waller , A S 2021 , ' Globetrotting strangles : the unbridled national and international transmission of Streptococcus equi between horses ' , Microbial Genomics . https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000528
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
DescriptionThe Horse Trust funded the collection of S. equi from outbreaks of strangles in the UK (G1606) and the sequencing of the Se4047 reference genome. A. S. W., C. R., C. M. and K. F. S. were funded by awards from the Horse Trust, Estate of Paul Mellon Foundation, Alice Noakes Memorial Charitable Trust, Ivo Trust, Tattersalls, The Elise Pilkington Charitable Trust, The European Breeders Fund, The Serth and Gates Charity, Margaret Giffen Charitable Trust, The Payne Gallwey Charitable Trust, The Stafford Trust, Marjorie Coote Animal Charity Trust, Beryl Evetts and Robert Luff Animal Welfare Trust, and The Anne Duchess of Westminster’s Charitable Trust. S. W. was funded by a grant from the Sir Peter O’Sullevan Charitable Trust. J. R. N. was supported through a combined contribution to the Animal Health Trust’s Equine Infectious Disease Service from the Horserace Betting Levy Board, Racehorse Owners Association and Thoroughbred Breeders’ Association. H. W. was funded by a grant from the Petplan Charitable Trust (S19-741-780). R. C. and O. P. were supported by the New Zealand Equine Research Foundation. S. R. H., J. P. and M. T .G. H. were supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant number 098051). J. F. T. was supported by the Grayson Jockey Club Research Foundation and the Keeneland Association Endowment.
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