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dc.contributor.authorTrigg, Leah
dc.contributor.authorChen, Feng
dc.contributor.authorShapiro, Georgy
dc.contributor.authorIngram, Simon
dc.contributor.authorVincent, Cecile
dc.contributor.authorThompson, Dave
dc.contributor.authorRussell, Debbie JF
dc.contributor.authorCarter, Matt
dc.contributor.authorEmbling, Clare
dc.identifier.citationTrigg , L , Chen , F , Shapiro , G , Ingram , S , Vincent , C , Thompson , D , Russell , D JF , Carter , M & Embling , C 2020 , ' Predicting the exposure of diving grey seals to shipping noise ' , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , vol. 148 , no. 2 , pp. 1014-1029 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 269804631
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 2ca5fb4c-1e58-41b5-88b1-cc6421c587f3
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1969-102X/work/79564798
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1546-2876/work/79564822
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5481-6254/work/79565052
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85090178929
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000567402100003
dc.descriptionFunding: D.J.F.R. and D.T. are supported by National Capability funding from NERC to SMRU (Grant No. SMRU1001).en
dc.description.abstractThere is high spatial overlap between grey seals and shipping traffic, and the functional hearing range of grey seals indicates sensitivity to underwater noise emitted by ships. However, there is still very little data regarding the exposure of grey seals to shipping noise, constraining effective policy decisions. Particularly, there are few predictions that consider the at-sea movement of seals. Consequently, this study aimed to predict the exposure of adult grey seals and pups to shipping noise along a three-dimensional movement track, and assess the influence of shipping characteristics on sound exposure levels. Using ship location data, a ship source model, and the acoustic propagation model, RAMSurf, this study estimated weighted 24-h sound exposure levels (10–1000 Hz) (SELw). Median predicted 24-h SELw was 128 and 142 dB re 1 μPa2s for the pups and adults, respectively. The predicted exposure of seals to shipping noise did not exceed best evidence thresholds for temporary threshold shift. Exposure was mediated by the number of ships, ship source level, the distance between seals and ships, and the at-sea behaviour of the seals. The results can inform regulatory planning related to anthropogenic pressures on seal populations.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of the Acoustical Society of Americaen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 Acoustical Society of America. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titlePredicting the exposure of diving grey seals to shipping noiseen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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