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dc.contributor.authorDeng, Yali
dc.contributor.authorMurawski, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorKeum, Changmin
dc.contributor.authorYoshida, Kou
dc.contributor.authorSamuel, Ifor D. W.
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte C.
dc.identifier.citationDeng , Y , Murawski , C , Keum , C , Yoshida , K , Samuel , I D W & Gather , M C 2020 , ' Development of very high luminance p–i–n junction-based blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes ' , Advanced Optical Materials , vol. Early View , 1901721 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 266224627
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9f67dc90-5ec2-42cd-82df-f08ef18e40a5
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:4F443E12C283FD7BA443CA7C72325C97
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85078675519
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4857-5562/work/68647889
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9995-6525/work/68647935
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000508091300001
dc.descriptionThis research was financially supported by the EPSRC NSF‐CBET lead agency agreement (EP/R010595/1, 1706207), the DARPA‐NESD programme (N66001‐17‐C‐4012), and the Leverhulme Trust (RPG‐2017‐231). Y.L.D. acknowledges a stipend from the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC). C.M. acknowledges funding by the European Commission through a Marie Skłodowska Curie Individual Fellowship (703387). C.K. acknowledges support from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1A6A3A03012331).en
dc.description.abstractOrganic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs) can emit light over much larger areas than their inorganic counterparts, offer mechanical flexibility, and can be readily integrated on various substrates and backplanes. However, the amount of light they emit per unit area is typically lower and the required operating voltage is higher, which can be a limitation for emerging applications of OLEDs, e.g., in outdoor and high‐dynamic‐range displays, biomedical devices, or visible‐light communication. Here, high‐luminance, blue‐emitting (λpeak = 464 nm), fluorescent p–i–n OLEDs are developed by combining three strategies: First, the thickness of the intrinsic layers in the device is decreased to reduce internal voltage loss. Second, different electron‐blocking layer materials are tested to recover efficiency losses resulting from this thickness reduction. Third, the geometry of the anode contact is optimized, which leads to a substantial reduction in the in‐plane resistive voltage losses. The OLEDs retain a maximum external quantum efficiency of 4.4% as expected for an optimized fluorescent device and reach a luminance of 132 000 cd m−2 and an optical power density of 2.4 mW mm−2 at 5 V, a nearly eightfold improvement compared to the original reference device.
dc.relation.ispartofAdvanced Optical Materialsen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectCMOS-compatible devicesen
dc.subjectDevice dimensionsen
dc.subjectElectron-blocking layeren
dc.subjectHigh brightnessen
dc.subjectHigh current densityen
dc.subjectOrganic light-emitting diodesen
dc.subjectResistance of anode contacten
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleDevelopment of very high luminance p–i–n junction-based blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Commissionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biophotonicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Condensed Matter Physicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosisen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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