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dc.contributor.authorBellingham, Peter J.
dc.contributor.authorRichardson, Sarah J.
dc.contributor.authorGormley, Andrew M.
dc.contributor.authorAllen, Robert B.
dc.contributor.authorCook, Asher
dc.contributor.authorCrisp, Philippa N.
dc.contributor.authorForsyth, David M.
dc.contributor.authorMcGlone, Matt S.
dc.contributor.authorMcKay, Meredith
dc.contributor.authorMacLeod, Catriona J.
dc.contributor.authorvan Dam-Bates, Paul
dc.contributor.authorWright, Elaine F.
dc.identifier.citationBellingham , P J , Richardson , S J , Gormley , A M , Allen , R B , Cook , A , Crisp , P N , Forsyth , D M , McGlone , M S , McKay , M , MacLeod , C J , van Dam-Bates , P & Wright , E F 2020 , ' Implementing integrated measurements of essential biodiversity variables at a national scale ' , Ecological Solutions and Evidence , vol. 1 , no. 2 , e12025 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 270641160
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 600bfd1f-f8e8-4256-a932-e90fd52ba811
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:79709E21D8866B9045BE65A4A8160355
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85097750184
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000798015600002
dc.descriptionFunding: the Strategic Science Investment Funding for Crown Research Institutes from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.en
dc.description.abstract1. There is a global need for observation systems that deliver regular, timely data on state and trends in biodiversity, but few have been implemented, and fewer still at national scales. We describe the implementation of measurement of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) on an 8 km × 8 km grid throughout New Zealand, with multiple components of biodiversity (vegetation, birds, and some introduced mammals) measured simultaneously at each sample point. 2. Between 2011 and 2017, all public land was sampled nationally (ca. 1,350 points) and some private land (ca. 500 points). Synthetic appraisals of the state of New Zealand's biodiversity, not possible previously, can be derived from the first measurement of species distribution, population abundance, and taxonomic diversity EBVs. 3. Native bird counts (all species combined) were about 2.5 times greater per sample point in natural forests and shrublands than in non‐woody ecosystems, and native bird counts exceeded those of non‐native birds across all natural forests and shrublands. 4. Non‐native plants, birds, and mammals are invasive throughout, but high‐rainfall forested regions are least invaded, and historically deforested rain shadow regions are most invaded. 5. National reporting of terrestrial biodiversity across New Zealand's public land is established and becoming normalised, in the same manner as national and international reporting of human health and education statistics. The challenge is extending coverage across all private land. Repeated measurements of these EBVs, which began in 2017, will allow defensible estimates of biodiversity trends.
dc.relation.ispartofEcological Solutions and Evidenceen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 The Authors. Ecological Solutions and Evidence published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectBiological invasionsen
dc.subjectGrid-based samplingen
dc.subjectNon-native birdsen
dc.subjectState and trend monitoringen
dc.subjectSystematic biodiversity assessmenten
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.subjectSDG 15 - Life on Landen
dc.titleImplementing integrated measurements of essential biodiversity variables at a national scaleen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Statisticsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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