Lipidomic profiling of plasma free fatty acids in type-1 diabetes highlights specific changes in lipid metabolism
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Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with metabolic changes leading to alterations in glucose and lipid handling. While T1DM- associated effects on many major plasma lipids have been characterised, such effects on plasma free fatty acids (FFA) have not been fully examined. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we measured the plasma concentrations of FFA species in individuals with T1DM (n=44) and age/sex-matched healthy controls (n=44). Relationships between FFA species and various parameters were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of myristate (14:0), palmitoleate (16:1), palmitate (16:0), linoleate (18:2), oleate (18:1c9), cis-vaccenate (18:1c11), eicosapentaenoate (20:5), arachidonate (20:4) and docosahexanoate (22:6) were reduced in the T1DM group (p<0.0001 for all, except p=0.0020 for eicosapentaenoate and p=0.0068 for arachidonate); α-linolenate (18:3) and dihomo-γ- linolenate (20:3) concentrations were unchanged. Saturated/unsaturated FFA ratio, n-3/n-6 ratio, de novo lipogenesis index (palmitate (main lipogenesis product)/linoleate (only found in diet)) and elongase index (oleate/palmitoleate) were increased in the T1DM group (p=0.0166, p=0.0089, p<0.0001 and p=0.0008 respectively). The stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) index 1 (palmitoleate/palmitate) and index 2 (oleate/stearate) were reduced in T1DM (p<0.0001 for all). The delta-(5)- desaturase (D5D) index (arachidonate/dihomo-γ-linolenate) was unchanged. Age and sex had no effect on plasma FFA concentrations in T1DM, while SCD1 index 1 was positively correlated (p=0.098) and elongase index negatively correlated with age (p=0.0363). HbA1c was negatively correlated with all plasma FFAs concentrations measured except α- linolenate and dihomo-γ-linolenate. Correlations were observed between plasma FFAs and cholesterol and HDL, but not LDL or diabetes duration. Collectively, these results aid our understanding of T1DM and its effects on lipid metabolism.
Sobczak , A I S , Pitt , S J , Smith , T K , Ajjan , R A & Stewart , A J 2021 , ' Lipidomic profiling of plasma free fatty acids in type-1 diabetes highlights specific changes in lipid metabolism ' , Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids , vol. 1866 , no. 1 , 158823 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158823
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/).
DescriptionThis research was funded by the British Heart Foundation [grant numbers PG/15/9/31270, FS/15/42/3155].
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