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dc.contributor.authorGillespie, Douglas
dc.contributor.authorMacaulay, Jamie
dc.identifier.citationGillespie , D & Macaulay , J 2019 , ' Time of arrival difference estimation for narrow band high frequency echolocation clicks ' , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , vol. 146 , no. 4 , pp. EL387-EL392 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 264468242
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5e63b8b2-aa61-4457-8570-1b0c521f2b8b
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85074172747
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 31671977
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9628-157X/work/66398335
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000506814200013
dc.descriptionFunding: Scottish Government as part of the Marine Mammal Scientific Research Program MMSS/002/15; Natural Environment Research Council, Grant No. NE/R014639/1.en
dc.description.abstractAlgorithms are presented for the accurate time of arrival difference estimation of high frequency narrow band echolocation clicks from Harbor Porpoise. These clicks typically have a center frequency of around 130 kHz (wavelength ∼1.2 cm) and duration of <0.1 ms. When using hydrophones spaced centimeters apart, spatial aliasing can cause large errors on inter-hydrophone timing measurements due to the incorrect peak in the cross-correlation function of two signals being selected. It is shown that at sample rates of less than about 6 times the fundamental frequency, the incorrect correlation peak will be selected in 55% of measurements leading to large errors in time of arrival estimates. For clicks with a SNR > 10 dB these errors can be reduced by over two orders of magnitude through a combination of up-sampling the data and parabolic interpolation of peaks in the cross-correlation functions.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of the Acoustical Society of Americaen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2019 Acoustical Society of America. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)en
dc.subjectAcoustics and Ultrasonicsen
dc.titleTime of arrival difference estimation for narrow band high frequency echolocation clicksen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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