Time of arrival difference estimation for narrow band high frequency echolocation clicks
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Algorithms are presented for the accurate time of arrival difference estimation of high frequency narrow band echolocation clicks from Harbor Porpoise. These clicks typically have a center frequency of around 130 kHz (wavelength ∼1.2 cm) and duration of <0.1 ms. When using hydrophones spaced centimeters apart, spatial aliasing can cause large errors on inter-hydrophone timing measurements due to the incorrect peak in the cross-correlation function of two signals being selected. It is shown that at sample rates of less than about 6 times the fundamental frequency, the incorrect correlation peak will be selected in 55% of measurements leading to large errors in time of arrival estimates. For clicks with a SNR > 10 dB these errors can be reduced by over two orders of magnitude through a combination of up-sampling the data and parabolic interpolation of peaks in the cross-correlation functions.
Gillespie , D & Macaulay , J 2019 , ' Time of arrival difference estimation for narrow band high frequency echolocation clicks ' , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , vol. 146 , no. 4 , pp. EL387-EL392 . https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5129678
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
DescriptionFunding: Scottish Government as part of the Marine Mammal Scientific Research Program MMSS/002/15; Natural Environment Research Council, Grant No. NE/R014639/1.
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