Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase on hard carbon electrodes in sodium-ion batteries
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The composition, morphology and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on hard carbon (HC) electrodes upon cycling in sodium-ion batteries are here investigated. A microporous HC was prepared by pyrolysis of D-(+)-Glucose at 1000°C followed by ball-milling. HC electrodes were galvanostatically cycled at room temperature in sodium-ion half-cells using an aprotic electrolyte of 1 M sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide dissolved in propylene carbonate with 3 wt% fluoroethylene carbonate additive. The evolution of the electrode/electrolyte interface was studied by impedance spectroscopy upon cycling and ex situ by spectroscopy and microscopy. The irreversible capacity displayed by the HC electrodes in the first galvanostatic cycle is probably due to the accumulation of redox inactive NaxC phases and the precipitation of a porous, organic-inorganic hybrid SEI layer over the HC electrodes. This passivation film further evolves in morphology and composition upon cycling and stabilizes after approximately 10 galvanostatic cycles at low current rates.
Carboni , M , Manzi , J , Armstrong , A R , Billaud , J , Brutti , S & Younesi , R 2019 , ' Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase on hard carbon electrodes in sodium-ion batteries ' , ChemElectroChem , vol. Early View . https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201801621
Copyright © 2019 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201801621
DescriptionSB would like to thank the Italian Government for the funding through the FFARB scheme and Basilicata Innovazione project for the financial support through the specific program “Validazione dei risultati della Ricerca - Progetto di Convalida 2014-2015 - Prestazioni e analisi di fallimento di un dispositivo sodio-ione completo per accumulo reversibile di energia”. RY is grateful to the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) (project number 2016-01257) and STandUp for Energy for financial support.
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