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dc.contributor.authorHinnebusch, Raymond
dc.identifier.citationHinnebusch , R 2018 , ' From Westphalian failure to heterarchic governance in MENA : the case of Syria ' , Small Wars and Insurgencies , vol. 29 , no. 3 , pp. 391-413 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252649714
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: df7d9a65-cd49-43a6-a747-f7ea8ca6cd11
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85046713750
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-5800-6606/work/60630168
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000432218200002
dc.description.abstractThe problematic export of the Westphalian system to MENA is examined, taking Syria as exemplar. The export model is juxtaposed to actual non-lineal trajectories, semi-sovereignty and hybrid or failing states. This is manifested in post-uprising Syria in failing statehood, fragmented and overlapping governance, permeable and collapsing borders, the loss of sovereignty to trans-state movements, “competitive regime-building” between the Asad regime and jihadist warlords, and “competitive interventionism” by external powers filling the governance vacuum with their own proxies. The result is heterarchic zones of limited statehood in which state sovereignty is contested by both international (supra-state) penetration and sub-state fragmentation.
dc.relation.ispartofSmall Wars and Insurgenciesen
dc.rights© 2018, Taylor & Francis. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created accepted version manuscript following peer review and as such may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectWestphalian systemen
dc.subjectState failureen
dc.subjectHeterarchic governanceen
dc.subjectMiddle Easten
dc.subjectHybrid regimesen
dc.subjectCivil waren
dc.subjectWestphalian orderen
dc.subjectJZ International relationsen
dc.subjectSocial Sciences(all)en
dc.titleFrom Westphalian failure to heterarchic governance in MENA : the case of Syriaen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of International Relationsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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