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dc.contributor.authorBacquart, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorPerkins, Mark
dc.contributor.authorFerracci, Valerio
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Nicholas A.
dc.contributor.authorResner, Kate
dc.contributor.authorWard, Michael K.M.
dc.contributor.authorCassidy, Nathan
dc.contributor.authorHook, Joshua B.
dc.contributor.authorBrewer, Paul J.
dc.contributor.authorIrvine, John T. S.
dc.contributor.authorConnor, Paul A.
dc.contributor.authorMurugan, Arul
dc.identifier.citationBacquart , T , Perkins , M , Ferracci , V , Martin , N A , Resner , K , Ward , M K M , Cassidy , N , Hook , J B , Brewer , P J , Irvine , J T S , Connor , P A & Murugan , A 2018 , ' Production and stability of low amount fraction of formaldehyde in hydrogen gas standards ' , International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , vol. 43 , no. 13 , pp. 6711-6722 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252458652
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 8741482c-b02d-4f34-a60e-85022d06037f
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:973410430FD80296D5F93078DC3296CC
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85042659561
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1492-7590/work/60427189
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000429755400024
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8394-3359/work/68280611
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by Innovate UK [Project No: 101830].en
dc.description.abstractFormaldehyde is an intermediate of the steam methane reforming process for hydrogen production. According to International Standard ISO 14687-2 the amount fraction level of formaldehyde present in hydrogen supplied to fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) must not exceed 10 nmol mol−1. The development of formaldehyde standards in hydrogen is crucial to validate the analytical results and ensure measurement reliability for the FCEV industry. NPL demonstrated that these standards can be gravimetrically prepared and validated at 10 μmol mol−1 with a shelf-life of 8 weeks (stability uncertainty <10%; k = 1), but that formaldehyde degrades into methanol and dimethoxymethane, as measured by FTIR, GC-MS and SIFT-MS. The degradation kinetics is more rapid than predicted by thermodynamics, this may be due to the internal gas cylinder surface acting as a catalyst. The identification of by-products (methanol and dimethoxymethane) requires further investigation to establish any potential undesirable impacts to the FCEV.
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energyen
dc.rightsCrown Copyright © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectGas analysisen
dc.subjectDegradation productsen
dc.subject“Gas standard”en
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.subjectSDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energyen
dc.titleProduction and stability of low amount fraction of formaldehyde in hydrogen gas standardsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Chemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. EaSTCHEMen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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