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dc.contributor.authorHobaiter, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorByrne, Richard W.
dc.identifier.citationHobaiter , C & Byrne , R W 2017 , ' What is a gesture? A meaning-based approach to defining gestural repertoires ' , Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , vol. 82 , pp. 3-12 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 249738574
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6ee454e9-9432-47ac-89a6-35ff3376f8b4
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85020500650
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000419418600002
dc.descriptionFieldwork of CH was generously supported by the Wenner Gren Foundation, the Russel Trust, and the British Academy.en
dc.description.abstractCurrent systems of categorizing ape gestures are typically subjective, relying on human intuition. We have systematized the features on which categorization depends (movement; body part; one/both limbs; use of detached object; rhythmic repetition; contact with recipient), showing that a potential repertoire of over 1000 gestures is physically possible, as large as the lexicon of some languages. In contrast, little more than a tenth of these gestures is used in chimpanzee communication. The striking overlaps in repertoire found between populations and even species of great ape are evidently not a result of a restricted set of possible gestures. Using the reactions of signallers to identify which gestures are intended to be different by the apes themselves, we revised the current classification, making some new distinctions and abolishing others previously considered important, giving a final repertoire of 81. A small number of gestures are used deictically, such that the recipient must pay attention to specific locations to satisfy the signaller; raising the possibility of a stepping-stone to the evolution of reference.
dc.relation.ispartofNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviewsen
dc.rights© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created accepted version manuscript following peer review and as such may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectIntentional gestureen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleWhat is a gesture? A meaning-based approach to defining gestural repertoiresen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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