Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorReale, Sophie
dc.contributor.authorKearney, Colette
dc.contributor.authorHetherington, Marion
dc.contributor.authorCroden, Fiona
dc.contributor.authorCecil, Joanne E.
dc.contributor.authorCarstairs, Sharon A.
dc.contributor.authorRolls, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorCaton, Samantha
dc.identifier.citationReale , S , Kearney , C , Hetherington , M , Croden , F , Cecil , J E , Carstairs , S A , Rolls , B & Caton , S 2018 , ' The feasibility and acceptability of two methods of snack portion control in United Kingdom (UK) preschool children : reduction and replacement ' , Nutrients , vol. 10 , no. 10 , 1493 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 256199564
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 8af83cd1-f510-41eb-bb68-e45c30979b72
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85054887842
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-6593-5972/work/49580228
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4779-6037/work/60196852
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000448821300159
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the BBSRC, Diet and Nutrition Research Industry Club [grant numbers BB/M027384/1].en
dc.description.abstractLarge portions of high energy dense (HED) snacks are offered to children from a young age and are pervasive in our food environment. This study aimed to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of two strategies of snack portion control: reduction and replacement. Forty-six mother-child dyads aged 22–56 months (36.6 ± 9.5 m, 48% female) completed a three-week intervention. In week 1 (baseline) no changes were made to the child’s diet; week 2 (acclimation) children received a standardised selection of HED snacks, and in week 3 (intervention) participants were randomly assigned to snack replacement (n = 24) or snack reduction (n = 22). Snack replacement involved swapping HED snacks for fruits and vegetables, whilst snack reduction involved reducing the size of HED snacks by 50%. Food and energy intake were measured using a weighed food diary for four consecutive days. Snack replacement resulted in more positive changes to children’s diets; vegetable intake increased (p < 0.01), and total daily energy intake decreased when compared to snack reduction (p < 0.05). Mothers expressed a more favourable attitude to snack replacement, although snack reduction was also well received by mothers. Despite increased preliminary efficacy of snack replacement on dietary intake, both strategies were feasible and acceptable. The current pilot study provides the necessary information to inform the design of future interventions.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectPortion Sizeen
dc.subjectSnack replacementen
dc.subjectSnack reductionen
dc.subjectPreschool childrenen
dc.subjectRJ101 Child Health. Child health servicesen
dc.titleThe feasibility and acceptability of two methods of snack portion control in United Kingdom (UK) preschool children : reduction and replacementen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Health Psychologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record