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dc.contributor.authorHunter, T. R.
dc.contributor.authorBrogan, C. L.
dc.contributor.authorMacLeod, G. C.
dc.contributor.authorCyganowski, C. J.
dc.contributor.authorChibueze, J. O.
dc.contributor.authorFriesen, R.
dc.contributor.authorHirota, T.
dc.contributor.authorSmits, D. P.
dc.contributor.authorChandler, C. J.
dc.contributor.authorIndebetouw, R.
dc.identifier.citationHunter , T R , Brogan , C L , MacLeod , G C , Cyganowski , C J , Chibueze , J O , Friesen , R , Hirota , T , Smits , D P , Chandler , C J & Indebetouw , R 2018 , ' The extraordinary outburst in the massive protostellar system NGC6334I-MM1 : emergence of strong 6.7 GHz methanol masers ' , Astrophysical Journal , vol. 854 , no. 2 , 170 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 252179651
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 871f2724-1bb4-43d2-9c51-29f21f17097b
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85042706849
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000425961400007
dc.descriptionC. J. Cyganowski acknowledges support from the STFC (grant number ST/M001296/1).en
dc.description.abstractWe report the first sub-arcsecond VLA imaging of 6 GHz continuum, methanol maser, and excited-state hydroxyl maser emission toward the massive protostellar cluster NGC6334I following the recent 2015 outburst in (sub)millimeter continuum toward MM1, the strongest (sub)millimeter source in the protocluster. In addition to detections toward the previously known 6.7 GHz Class II methanol maser sites in the hot core MM2 and the UCHII region MM3 (NGC6334F), we find new maser features toward several components of MM1, along with weaker features ∼1” north, west, and southwest of MM1, and toward the non-thermal radio continuum source CM2. None of these areas have heretofore exhibited Class II methanol maser emission in three decades of observations. The strongest MM1 masers trace a dust cavity, while no masers are seen toward the strongest dust sources MM1A, 1B and 1D. The locations of the masers are consistent with a combination of increased radiative pumping due to elevated dust grain temperature following the outburst, the presence of infrared photon propagation cavities, and the presence of high methanol column densities as indicated by ALMA images of thermal transitions. The non-thermal radio emission source CM2 (2” north of MM1) also exhibits new maser emission from the excited 6.035 and 6.030 GHz OH lines. Using the Zeeman effect, we measure a line-of-sight magnetic field of +0.5 to +3.7 mG toward CM2. In agreement with previous studies, we also detect numerous methanol and excited OH maser spots toward the UCHII region MM3, with predominantly negative line-of-sight magnetic field strengths of -2 to -5 mG and an intriguing south-north field reversal.
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journalen
dc.rights© 2018, American Astronomical Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectStars: formationen
dc.subjectStars: protostarsen
dc.subjectISM: individual objects (NGC6334I)en
dc.subjectRadio continuum: ISMen
dc.subjectISM: magnetic fieldsen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectAstronomy and Astrophysicsen
dc.titleThe extraordinary outburst in the massive protostellar system NGC6334I-MM1 : emergence of strong 6.7 GHz methanol masersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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