Visualization of podocyte substructure with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) : a new approach to nephrotic disease
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A detailed microscopic analysis of renal podocyte substructure is essential to understand and diagnose nephrotic kidney disease. Currently only time consuming electron microscopy (EM) can resolve this substructure. We used structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to examine frozen sections of renal biopsies stained with an immunofluorescence marker for podocin, a protein localized to the perimeter of the podocyte foot processes and compared them with EM in both normal and nephrotic disease biopsies. SIM images of normal glomeruli revealed curvilinear patterns of podocin densely covering capillary walls similar to podocyte foot processes seen by EM. Podocin staining of all nephrotic disease biopsies were significantly different than normal, corresponding to and better visualizing effaced foot processes seen by EM. The findings support the first potential use of SIM in the diagnosis of nephrotic disease.
Pullman , J , Nylk , J , Campbell , E C , Gunn-Moore , F J , Prystowsky , M B & Dholakia , K 2016 , ' Visualization of podocyte substructure with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) : a new approach to nephrotic disease ' Biomedical Optics Express , vol 7 , no. 2 , pp. 302-311 . DOI: 10.1364/BOE.7.000302
Biomedical Optics Express
Copyright 2016 OSA. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.7.000302. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited.
We thank the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under grant EP/J0177X/1, the RS Macdonald Charitable Trust, the BRAINS 600th anniversary appeal, and Dr. Killick for funding. KD acknowledges the award of a Royal Society Leverhulme Trust Senior Fellowship.
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