What do national flags stand for? An exploration of associations across 11 countries
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We examined the concepts and emotions people associate with their national flag, and how these associations are related to nationalism and patriotism across 11 countries. Factor analyses indicated that the structures of associations differed across countries in ways that reflect their idiosyncratic historical developments. Positive emotions and egalitarian concepts were associated with national flags across countries. However, notable differences between countries were found due to historical politics. In societies known for being peaceful and open-minded (e.g., Canada, Scotland), egalitarianism was separable from honor-related concepts and associated with the flag; in countries that were currently involved in struggles for independence (e.g., Scotland) and countries with an imperialist past (United Kingdom), the flag was strongly associated with power-related concepts; in countries with a negative past (e.g., Germany), the primary association was sports; in countries with disruption due to separatist or extremist movements (e.g., Northern Ireland, Turkey), aggression-related concepts were not disassociated; in collectivist societies (India, Singapore), obedience was linked to positive associations and strongly associated with the flag. In addition, the more strongly individuals endorsed nationalism and patriotism, the more they associated positive emotions and egalitarian concepts with their flag. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Becker , J C , Butz , D A , Sibley , C G , Barlow , F K , Bitacola , L M , Christ , O , Khan , S S , Loeng , C-H , Pehrson , S , Srinivasan , N , Sulz , A , Tausch , N , Urbanska , K & Wright , S C 2017 , ' What do national flags stand for? An exploration of associations across 11 countries ' , Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology , vol. 48 , no. 3 , pp. 335-352 . https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116687851
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
© 2016 the Authors. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work will be available at: https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/journal-of-cross-cultural-psychology/journal200947 / https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022116687851
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