Dynamic habitat corridors for marine predators : intensive use of a coastal channel by harbour seals is modulated by tidal currents
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Previous studies have found that predators utilise habitat corridors to ambush prey moving through them. In the marine environment, coastal channels effectively act as habitat corridors for prey movements, and sightings of predators in such areas suggest that they may target these for foraging. Unlike terrestrial systems where the underlying habitat structure is generally static, corridors in marine systems are in episodic flux due to water movements created by tidal processes. Although these hydrographic features can be highly complex, there is generally a predictable underlying cyclic tidal pattern to their structure. For marine predators that must find prey that is often patchy and widely distributed, the underlying temporal predictability in potential foraging opportunities in marine corridors may be important drivers in their use. Here we used data from land-based sightings and nineteen harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) tagged with high-resolution GPS telemetry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of seals in a narrow tidal channel. These seals showed a striking pattern in their distribution; all seals spent a high proportion of their time around the narrowest point of the channel. There was also a distinctive tidal pattern in the use of the channel; sightings of seals in the water peaked during the flood tide and were at a minimum during the ebb tide. This pattern is likely to be related to prey availability and/or foraging efficiency driven by the underlying tidal pattern in the water movements through the channel.
Hastie , G D , Russell , D J , Benjamins , S , Moss , S , Wilson , B & Thompson , D 2016 , ' Dynamic habitat corridors for marine predators : intensive use of a coastal channel by harbour seals is modulated by tidal currents ' Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , vol 70 , no. 12 , pp. 2161–2174 . DOI: 10.1007/s00265-016-2219-7
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
© The Author(s) 2016 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
The work was funded by the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council, the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (RESPONSE project, NE/J004251/1 and NERC National Capability SMRU1001), Scottish Natural Heritage and Marine Scotland