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dc.contributor.authorGraham, Kirsty E.
dc.contributor.authorFuruichi, Takeshi
dc.contributor.authorByrne, Richard W.
dc.identifier.citationGraham , K E , Furuichi , T & Byrne , R W 2017 , ' The gestural repertoire of the wild bonobo ( Pan paniscus ) : a mutually understood communication system ' , Animal Cognition , vol. 20 , no. 2 , pp. 171-177 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 245777839
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 080daadc-ba65-456f-8bb5-84cbe2eafe5f
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84988354165
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9862-9373/work/60630544
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000394313400004
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7422-7676/work/92020077
dc.descriptionFunding was provided by the Wenner-Gren Foundation Dissertation Fieldwork Grant, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant in Aid for Scientific Research, JSPS Core-to-Core Program, and University of St Andrews 600th Anniversary Scholarship.en
dc.description.abstractIn animal communication, signallers and recipients are typically different: each signal is given by one subset of individuals (members of the same age, sex, or social rank) and directed towards another. However, there is scope for signaller-recipient interchangeability in systems where most signals are potentially relevant for all age-sex groups, such as great ape gestural communication. In this study of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), we aimed to discover whether their gestural communication is indeed a mutually understood communicative repertoire, in which all individuals can act as both signallers and recipients. While past studies have only examined the expressed repertoire, the set of gesture types that a signaller deploys, we also examined the understood repertoire, the set of gestures to which a recipient reacts in a way that satisfies the signaller. We found that most of the gestural repertoire was both expressed and understood by all age and sex groups, with few exceptions, suggesting that during their lifetimes all individuals may use and understand all gesture types. Indeed, as the number of overall gesture instances increased, so did the proportion of individuals estimated to both express and understand a gesture type. We compared the community repertoire of bonobos to that of chimpanzees, finding an 88% overlap. Observed differences are consistent with sampling effects generated by the species’ different social systems, and it is thus possible that the repertoire of gesture types available to Pan is determined biologically.
dc.relation.ispartofAnimal Cognitionen
dc.rightsCopyright The Author(s) 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.subjectUnderstood repertoireen
dc.subjectExpressed repertoireen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titleThe gestural repertoire of the wild bonobo (Pan paniscus) : a mutually understood communication systemen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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