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dc.contributor.authorBuchhave, Lars A.
dc.contributor.authorDressing, Courtney D.
dc.contributor.authorDumusque, Xavier
dc.contributor.authorRice, Ken
dc.contributor.authorVanderburg, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorMortier, Annelies
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Morales, Mercedes
dc.contributor.authorLopez, Eric
dc.contributor.authorLundkvist, Mia S.
dc.contributor.authorKjeldsen, Hans
dc.contributor.authorAffer, Laura
dc.contributor.authorBonomo, Aldo S.
dc.contributor.authorCharbonneau, David
dc.contributor.authorCameron, Andrew Collier
dc.contributor.authorCosentino, Rosario
dc.contributor.authorFigueira, Pedro
dc.contributor.authorFiorenzano, Aldo F. M.
dc.contributor.authorHarutyunyan, Avet
dc.contributor.authorHaywood, Raphaëlle D.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, John Asher
dc.contributor.authorLatham, David W.
dc.contributor.authorLovis, Christophe
dc.contributor.authorMalavolta, Luca
dc.contributor.authorMayor, Michel
dc.contributor.authorMicela, Giusi
dc.contributor.authorMolinari, Emilio
dc.contributor.authorMotalebi, Fatemeh
dc.contributor.authorNascimbeni, Valerio
dc.contributor.authorPepe, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, David F.
dc.contributor.authorPiotto, Giampaolo
dc.contributor.authorPollacco, Don
dc.contributor.authorQueloz, Didier
dc.contributor.authorSasselov, Dimitar
dc.contributor.authorSégransan, Damien
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorUdry, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Chris
dc.identifier.citationBuchhave , L A , Dressing , C D , Dumusque , X , Rice , K , Vanderburg , A , Mortier , A , Lopez-Morales , M , Lopez , E , Lundkvist , M S , Kjeldsen , H , Affer , L , Bonomo , A S , Charbonneau , D , Cameron , A C , Cosentino , R , Figueira , P , Fiorenzano , A F M , Harutyunyan , A , Haywood , R D , Johnson , J A , Latham , D W , Lovis , C , Malavolta , L , Mayor , M , Micela , G , Molinari , E , Motalebi , F , Nascimbeni , V , Pepe , F , Phillips , D F , Piotto , G , Pollacco , D , Queloz , D , Sasselov , D , Ségransan , D , Sozzetti , A , Udry , S & Watson , C 2016 , ' A 1.9 Earth radius rocky planet and the discovery of a non-transiting planet in the Kepler-20 system ' , Astronomical Journal , vol. 152 , no. 6 , 160 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 245405107
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 1efb7f6c-d4ab-4975-9178-f2e529dee9d2
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85009100612
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8863-7828/work/58531352
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000388626700001
dc.description.abstractKepler-20 is a solar-type star (V = 12.5) hosting a compact system of five transiting planets, all packed within the orbital distance of Mercury in our own Solar System. A transition from rocky to gaseous planets with a planetary transition radius of ∼ 1.6 R⊕ has recently been proposed by several publications in the literature (Rogers 2015; Weiss& Marcy 2014). Kepler-20b (Rp ∼ 1.9 R⊕) has a size beyond this transition radius, however previous mass measurements were not sufficiently precise to allow definite conclusions to be drawn regarding its composition. We present new mass measurements of Kepler-20 three of the planets in the Kepler-20 system facilitated by 104 radial velocity measurements from the HARPS-N spectrograph and 30 archival Keck/HIRES observations, as well as an updated photometric analysis of the Kepler data and an asteroseismic analysis of the host star (M* = 0.948 ± 0.051 M☉ and R* = 0.964 ± 0.018 R☉).Kepler-20b is a 1.868+0.066 −0.034 R⊕ planet in a 3.7 day period with amass of 9.70+1.41 −1.44 M⊕ resulting in a mean density of 8.2 +1.5 −1.3 g cm−3 indicating a rocky composition with an iron to silicate ratio consistent with that of the Earth. This makes Kepler-20b the most massive planet with a rocky composition found to date. Furthermore, we report the discovery of an additional non-transiting planet with a minimum mass of 19.96+3.08 −3.61 M⊕ and an orbital period of ∼ 34 days in the gap between Kepler-20f (P ∼ 11 days) and Kepler-20d (P ∼78 days).
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomical Journalen
dc.rights© 2016, American Astronomical Society. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectPlanetary systemsen
dc.subjectPlanets and satellites: compositionen
dc.subjectStars: individual (Kepler-20 = KOI-70, KIC 6850504)en
dc.subjectTechniques: radial velocitiesen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleA 1.9 Earth radius rocky planet and the discovery of a non-transiting planet in the Kepler-20 systemen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Commissionen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.sponsorPPARC - Now STFCen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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