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dc.contributor.authorPanhans, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorLavric, Lucia
dc.contributor.authorHanley, Nick
dc.identifier.citationPanhans , M , Lavric , L & Hanley , N 2017 , ' The effects of electricity costs on firm re-location decisions: insights for the pollution havens hypothesis? ' , Environmental and Resource Economics , vol. 68 , no. 4 , pp. 893-914 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 244397345
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c542df7f-40fb-421c-bac0-b33d51455d48
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84982859329
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000416801700004
dc.description.abstractElectricity costs are partly driven by environmental policy choices. In this paper, the effects of variations in electricity costs—as measured by end-user electricity prices–on firm relocation decisions are investigated. Using a discrete choice model and a data base that has not previously been exploited to study this problem, we investigate the effects of variations in electricity costs on the intensive and extensive re-location decisions of European firms. We find that electricity costs play a significant role in determining relocation destinations. This effect is asymmetric between firms moving into and out of a country, and between high and low energy intensity sectors. The findings of the paper have implications for the Pollution Havens Hypothesis, since they show the extent to which the effects of climate policy on domestic electricity costs can be expected to impact on firm relocation decisions both into and out of a country.
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental and Resource Economicsen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.subjectFirm re-locationen
dc.subjectEnergy costsen
dc.subjectPollution Havens Hypothesisen
dc.subjectClimate policyen
dc.subjectCarbon leakageen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.titleThe effects of electricity costs on firm re-location decisions: insights for the pollution havens hypothesis?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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