New nitric oxide releasing materials
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The aim of this thesis was to examine the ability of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to store and controllably release biologically significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO). Initial work involved the synthesis of a series of isostructural MOFs, known as M-CPO-27, which display coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUSs) when fully activated (guest solvent molecules both coordinated and uncoordinated to the metal atom are removed). Two of these frameworks (Ni and Co CPO-27) displayed exceptional performance over the entire cycle of activation, storage and delivery showing the largest storage and release of NO of any known porous material (up to 7 mmolg⁻¹). These frameworks would therefore be considered for initial research into the formulation of MOFs, for possible use in medical applications. It was shown that they still release large amounts of NO even when placed inside porous paper bags, creams or hydrocolloids. The other versions of M-CPO-27 also displayed significant adsorption of NO however they show poor total NO release. It was also shown that it is possible to synthesise both Ni and Co CPO-27 using microwave synthesis without any detrimental effect to the porous structure. Several iron-based MOFs were also investigated for NO storage and release. The results showed that Fe MIL-88 based structures adsorb good amounts of NO but only release a small amount of the irreversibly adsorbed NO. Two successfully amine grafted giant pore MOFs were then investigated to attempt to improve the NO adsorption and release. This result was not observed however, due to the poor total amine grafting coverage and pore blockage resulting from the amines. In-situ IR studies reveal that when exposed to NO, activated Fe MIL-100 forms a chemical bond with the NO. The studies also displayed that when water is then allowed to attempt to replace the NO that only a small amount of NO is actually released, the majority of the NO either remains chemically bonded to the Fe atom or forms N₂O in conjunction with a Fe-OH group. Other MOFs were also successfully synthesised and characterised for NO storage and release. Both Ni succinate and Ni STA-12 display good adsorption and excellent release of NO. This indicates that Ni based MOFs show the best results for NO adsorption and release. In the conclusion of the thesis I am able to categorise the NO release ability of MOFs based on composition and formulate a theory as to why this happens.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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