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dc.contributor.authorEllison, William T.
dc.contributor.authorRacca, Roberto
dc.contributor.authorClark, Christopher W.
dc.contributor.authorStreever, Bill
dc.contributor.authorFrankel, Adam S.
dc.contributor.authorFleishman, Erica
dc.contributor.authorAngliss, Robyn
dc.contributor.authorBerger, Joel
dc.contributor.authorKetten, Darlene
dc.contributor.authorGuerra, Melania
dc.contributor.authorLeu, Matthias
dc.contributor.authorMcKenna, Megan
dc.contributor.authorSformo, Todd
dc.contributor.authorSouthall, Brandon
dc.contributor.authorSuydam, Robert
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Len
dc.identifier.citationEllison , W T , Racca , R , Clark , C W , Streever , B , Frankel , A S , Fleishman , E , Angliss , R , Berger , J , Ketten , D , Guerra , M , Leu , M , McKenna , M , Sformo , T , Southall , B , Suydam , R & Thomas , L 2016 , ' Modeling the aggregated exposure and responses of bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus to multiple sources of anthropogenic underwater sound ' , Endangered Species Research , vol. 30 , pp. 95-108 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 244761345
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: f0e5a970-d191-4ad2-8c66-dff172839029
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000379263100010
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84994045550
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7436-067X/work/29591656
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000379263100010
dc.descriptionThis work was supported in part by a contract between BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. and the University of California, Santa Barbara (E.F.), and by the North Slope Borough.en
dc.description.abstractPotential responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound are usually assessed by researchers and regulators on the basis of exposure to a single, relatively loud sound source. However, marine mammals typically receive sounds from multiple, dynamic sources. We developed a method to aggregate modeled sounds from multiple sources and estimate the sound levels received by individuals. To illustrate the method, we modeled the sound fields of 9 sources associated with oil development and estimated the sound received over 47 d by a population of 10 000 simulated bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus on their annual migration through the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Empirical data were sufficient to parameterize simulations of the distribution of individual whales over time and their range of movement patterns. We ran 2 simulations to estimate the sound exposure history and distances traveled by bowhead whales: one in which they could change their movement paths (avert) in response to set levels of sound and one in which they could not avert. When animals could not avert, about 2% of the simulated population was exposed to root mean square (rms) sound pressure levels (SPL) ≥ 180 dB re 1 mu Pa, a level that regulators in the U.S. often associate with injury. When animals could avert from sound levels that regulators often associate with behavioral disturbance (rms SPL > 160 dB re 1  μPa), <1% of the simulated population was exposed to levels associated with injury. Nevertheless, many simulated bowhead whales received sound levels considerably above ambient throughout their migration. Our method enables estimates of the aggregated level of sound to which populations are exposed over extensive areas and time periods.
dc.relation.ispartofEndangered Species Researchen
dc.rights© The authors 2016. Open Access under Creative Commons by Attribution Licence. Use, distribution and reproduction are unrestricted. Authors and original publication must be credited.en
dc.subjectCumulative effectsen
dc.subjectIncidental takeen
dc.subjectMarine mammalsen
dc.subjectNegligible impacten
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleModeling the aggregated exposure and responses of bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus to multiple sources of anthropogenic underwater sounden
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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