ICEApl1, an integrative conjugative element related to ICEHin1056, identified in the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
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ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia.
Bosse , J T , Li , Y , Crespo , R F , Chaudhuri , R R , Rogers , J , Holden , M T G , Maskell , D J , Tucker , A W , Wren , B W , Rycroft , A N , Langford , P R & BRaDP1T Consortium 2016 , ' ICE Apl1 , an integrative conjugative element related to ICE Hin1056 , identified in the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ' Frontiers in Microbiology , vol 7 , 810 . DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00810
Frontiers in Microbiology
Copyright © 2016 Bossé, Li, Fernandez Crespo, Chaudhuri, Rogers, Holden, Maskell, Tucker, Wren, Rycroft, Langford and the BRaDP1T Consortium. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This work was supported by a Longer and Larger (LoLa) grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC grant numbers BB/G020744/1, BB/G019177/1, BB/G019274/1, and BB/G018553/1), the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and Zoetis (formerly Pfizer Animal Health) awarded to the Bacterial Respiratory Diseases of Pigs-1 Technology (BRaDP1T) Consortium. MTGH was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant number 098051). JR was funded from the former AHVLA’s Research and Development Internal Investment Fund (grant number RD0030c).
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