Quantum correlations in continuous variable mixed states : from discord to signatures
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This thesis studies continuous variable mixed states with the aim of better understanding the fundamental behaviour of quantum correlations in such states, as well as searching for applications of these correlations. I first investigate the interesting phenomenon of discord increase under local loss and explain the behaviour by considering the non-orthogonality of quantum states. I then explore the counter-intuitive result where entanglement can be created by a passive optical beamsplitter, even if the input states are classical, as long as the input states are part of a larger globally nonclassical system. This result emphasises the importance of global correlations in a quantum state, and I propose an application of this protocol in the form of quantum dense coding. Finally, I develop a quantum digital signature protocol that can be described entirely using the continuous variable formalism. Quantum digital signatures provide a method to ensure the integrity and provenance of a message using quantum states. They follow a similar method to quantum key distribution (QKD), but require less post-processing, which means they can sometimes be implemented over channels that are inappropriate for QKD. The method I propose uses homodyne measurement to verify the signature, unlike previous protocols that use single photon detection. The single photon detection of previous methods is designed to give unambiguous results about the signature, but this comes at the cost of getting no information much of the time. Using homodyne detection has the advantage of giving results all the time, but this means that measurement results always have some ambiguity. I show that, even with this ambiguity, the signature protocol based on homodyne measurement outperforms previous protocols, with the advantage enhanced when technical considerations are included. Therefore this represents an interesting new direction in the search for a practical quantum digital signature scheme.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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